Carné Joven Comunidad de Madrid 2016
¡Tu esfuerzo por hacer un mundo mejor tiene recompensa! Plazo de presentación HASTA EL 30 DE JUNIO
Carné Joven Comunidad de Madrid 2016
¡Tu esfuerzo por hacer un mundo mejor tiene recompensa! Plazo de presentación HASTA EL 30 DE JUNIO
World Toilet Day
The Polish Humanitarian Action (PAH) specializes in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene projects. In 2014 PAH began a WASH project in Somalia at a camp for internally displaced persons in Mogadishu. Thanks to funds from the European Commission some 300 toilet facilities were constructed. Why is toilet so important so that we celebrate toilet day?
Toilet, a place where if we don’t go each morning, our whole day doesn’t go well. In some emergency situation if we don’t get to use the loo we cannot concentrate on anything else. Every morning we spend our private time in the clean, well marveled toilet. Some of us have our toilets attached near the room and some of us have to walk few steps to reach. Now imagine if we didn’t have the privilege of using these toilets and we had to walk a long distance to use a toilet or we had to help ourselves somewhere in the fields or in some open area. Does this sound good? I am sure it doesn’t. According to the UN, 2.4 billion People do not have adequate sanitation. 1 billion people still defecate in the open. Poor sanitation increases the risk of disease and malnutrition, especially for women and children. Women and girls risk rape and abuse, because they have no toilet that offers privacy.
There are several reasons why people don’t have access to proper toilet, in different developing country because of people’s poor economic condition and poverty they cannot afford making a proper toilet since making a proper toilet is not a cheap investment so they are obliged to defecate in the open. Except this, lack of education is another reason. People with lack of education do not find anything wrong to defecate in the open. Defecating in the open creates sanitation problem which eventually leads to health problem in people and in the worst case scenario it can also lead to death. So it’s a problem that needs to be taken seriously.
Countries like India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana and many more have sanitation problems. A lot of people in each country are without access to sanitation. For solution to this, people need to be educated so that they can clearly understand the problem and try to solve it. The government of each countries have to concentrate on the country’s sanitation and start doing something about. There should be easy and cheap alternative for the toilets so that even poor people can afford it. Sanitation problems should be taken seriously and each of us, either individually or through any kind of organization, we can try to solve this problem together. On this day “World toilet day” we can start by raising awareness that sanitation is a serious issue and it should be solved since a lot of children are also dying because of it. There are different organization in this world who is focusing on this issue and one of them is Polish Humanitarian Action (PAH)
Author: Sheetal Dhakal
Future on my Mind – Communication and Participation in the Local Community – Workshop
2 July 2016 (Saturday), 9.30-12.30
Institute of Sociology, 52 Grodzka St
Number of places: 15 (first-come, first-served)
Time: 4 hours
Aleksandra Wagner, Maria Świątkiewicz-Mośny & Wit Hubert (Institute of Sociology, JU)
Anna Strzebońska, Dariusz Szklarczyk (Foundation for the Development of Social Research – FuRBS)
The future exists in our minds. It is like a horizon taken into account in our actions. It is also the projection of our hopes and fears. It can be open, imagined as many possible scenarios with unlimited space for the unknown and uncertainties. On the other hand, the future is often limited to one, most probable or most wanted scenario. We have to cope with the contingency, the unknown and the uncertain. We usually transform uncertainty into a risk, use strategic planning, statistics, and quantification of chances; we delay making a decision, and ignore unpredictable or use wishful thinking. Politicians and social leaders use visions of the future to legitimise decisions and – as a rhetorical tool – to make their language more persuasive and engaging.
Part 1 (2 hours)
One of the main reasons for engaging people in local governance is sharing responsibility for the common community: direction of development, goals and actions. We want them to believe they can make their future. Social change often needs resources coming from outside the existing system: new actors, new ideas, new values.
This is why it is so important to enable people to increase their openness to the future. It is important to see many ways and many possibilities before choosing one of them. We want to help people to go beyond the limitations of the current state of affairs and think creatively about their needs and desires.
The aim of the first part of our workshop is to discuss the methods and techniques of working with a group of citizens to make them think creatively about their common future. We want them to start thinking about ways to shape their future and convince them that it can be shaped by their actions. The outcome of the group work will be a guide for a participation workshop for citizens involved in strategy making for local development. We will try to find a balance between freethinking and implementation opportunities.
Part 2 (2 hours)
Conscious and accountable planning of future changes should involve an assessment of the anticipated results of actions. The change starts with its leaders and then expands into the local community. Thus, such an assessment may concern changes in the attitudes of workshop participants, as well as the expected impact of the proposed solutions on the life of the local community. Frequently, individuals who lead participatory workshops acquire this kind of knowledge from their own observations or, basically, talking with participants.
In the second part of the workshop, you will learn how to supplement these “natural” ways of measuring the impact of participatory projects through the introduction of standardisation in the measurement of their effects (planned and unplanned). We will present basic evaluation approaches and tools that will allow participants to produce a valuable documentation of such events in the course of participatory workshops. We will show how participatory workshops can be used to build a knowledge base that allows social leaders not only to improve the quality of future work and events, but also to safeguard against duplication of mistakes.
We would like to update the conference information: about the program and the abstracts, two invitations to the additional conference events.
1) We started working on the preliminary program, which should be published at the beginning of June. The final version will be available shortly after the end of registration (June 17th).
2) Please be reminded that if you want to make any changes in abstract or title of your presentation you have to send us the final version not later than May 15th.
3) We really hope you would like to take part in the conference associated events:
– “Jogging Moving Cities” on Thursday, 30th June – the only thing you need are running shoes (more info below).
– If you plan to stay in Krakow for the weekend, you can take part in the workshop “Future on my Mind – Communication and Participation in the Local Community” on Saturday, 2nd July (morning). The workshop call is available on the page http://goo.gl/forms/aRZvZFL9Ts (on-line registration – first-come, first-served rule applies). Please note that the number of places is only 15.
Information about other special events will be send with the preliminary program.
Marta Smagacz-Poziemska, Karol Kurnicki
Local organizing committee
WENDESDAY, 29.06 THURSDAY, 30.06 FRIDAY, 01.07 9.30 – 11.00 Key note speech Key note speech 11.00 – 11.30 Opening Coffee break Coffee break 11.30 – 13.00 Opening Key note speech Sessions 3 Sessions 5 13.00 – 14.30 Lunch break Lunch break Lunch break 14.30 – 16.00 Sessions 1 Key note speech Sessions 6 16.00 – 16.30 Coffee break Coffee break 4 Coffee break 16.30 – 18.00 Sessions 2 Sessions 4 Sessions 7
Track 1 – Methodological approaches to the moving city
Lígia Ferro (CIES, ISCTE-IUL, IS-UP) and João Teixeira Lopes (IS-UP)
Track 2- Moving cities: between structure and agency. Urban institutions and the pop-up city
Marta Smagacz-Poziemska (IS – JU) and Marta Klekotko (IS – JU)
Track 3- Social processes in the globalised moving city
M. Victoria Gómez (UC3M) and Juan Jose Villalon (UNED)
Track 4- Dynamics and meanings of public spaces in the moving city
Patrícia Pereira (CICS.NOVA, FCSH-UNL), Luís Baptista (CICS.NOVA, FCSH-UNL)
Track 5- Changing Neighbourhoods in the Moving City
Sebastian Kurtenbach (ISS-ZEFIR) and Jan Üblacker (FWGW).
Track 3- Social processes in the globalised moving city
M. Victoria Gómez (UC3M) and Juan Jose Villalon (UNED)
Economic globalisation, crisis, migratory flows as much as the political responses to these processes intersect at the urban space. Some scholars have defended visions that emphasise the idea of de-territorialisation and undervalue the importance of local dynamics fostered by globalisation. Nevertheless the importance of local urban areas as the locus of the most relevant social processes seems to be increasing nowadays. The track aims at exploring the dialectic between the global and the local by examining the set of issues, practices and processes that take place in contemporary cities, from segregation, marginalisation and exclusion in their various forms, to potential new dynamics of solidarity and strengthening of feelings of belonging.
Saskia Sassen is the Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology and Chair, The Committee on Global Thought, Columbia University (www.saskiasassen.com). Her new book isExpulsions: Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy(Harvard University Press 2014). Recent books are Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages ( Princeton University Press 2008), A Sociology of Globalization(W.W.Norton 2007), and the 4th fully updated edition of Cities in a World Economy (Sage 2012). Among older books are The Global City (Princeton University Press 1991/2001), andGuests and Aliens (New Press 1999). Her books are translated into over 20 languages. She is the recipient of diverse awards and mentions, including multiple doctor honoris causa, named lectures, and being selected as one of the top global thinkers on diverse lists. Most recently she was awarded the Principe de Asturias 2013 Prize in the Social Sciences and made a member of the Royal Academy of the Sciences of Netherland.
If your work does not fit in the tracks, you can submit your proposal to the open sessions.
El poder y la música
“Como suele ser tristemente habitual, y a pesar de que Barnes se refiere muy tangencialmente a la música de verdad (y es aquí donde radica la grandeza de Shostakóvich) y de que su prosa apenas contiene términos musicales como tales, la traducción chirría estrepitosamente en cuanto asoman tímidamente la cabeza. No puede hablarse, por ejemplo, de un “fabricante de violines” (p. 24) o de que alguien los “fabricaba como pasatiempo” (p. 55), sino, en todo caso, de un “constructor” o de que los “construía”. Las preposiciones también juegan malas pasadas: no existe el género del “trío de piano” (p. 27), hasta gramaticalmente incorrecto, y debe decirse con piano, como tampoco cabe hablar de una “sonata de violonchelo” sino paraviolonchelo. “En tono mayor” y “en tono menor” (p. 69) o, aún peor, “en escala mayor” (p. 192) son también errores muy burdos, ya que Barnes quiere decir “en modo mayor” y “en modo menor”. Tampoco existe el “clarinete principal” (p. 95) o el “fagot principal” (p. 186) en una orquesta, sino que se trata en ambos casos del clarinete o el fagot “solista”. Pero la palma se la llevan dos patinazos al comienzo: cuando Barnes dice que el padre y la madre de Shostakóvich “played four-handed piano”, el traductor obra el prodigio de que los 20 dedos fueran del padre en solitario: “tocaba el piano a cuatro manos” (p. 31); y al referirse indirectamente al oído absoluto del compositor con su lejano recuerdo de “four blasts of a factory siren in F sharp”, nos encontramos con “el fa agudo de los cuatro pitidos de la sirena de una fábrica” (p. 18), en vez de, con más corrección y menos agudeza, “cuatro toques de sirena en fa sostenido de una fábrica”.”
Centre for Multimodal Communication is hosting a PhD workshop and masterclass on semiotic technology at University of Southern Denmark on September 19-21.
During the course there will be lectures, workshops and the possibility for individual consultations with four top scholars within the field:
Michele Zappavigna (University of New South Wales)
Sumin Zhao (University of Technology Sydney)
Emilia Djonov (Macquarie University)
Theo van Leeuwen (University of Southern Denmark):
|Time and place||Coming soon|
|How to apply||In order to apply for this course, please do the following:
1. Send a brief CV and a 1-2 page description of your project to email@example.com.
2. Sign up for the course at (link to SDU’ website – link coming soon)
Deadline for Register and email application by 15 July 2016.
You will hear from Søren Vigild Poulsen when your registration is complete.
The workshop and masterclass will accommodate a limited number of 12 participants.
Questions may be directed to Søren Vigild Poulsen, Assistant Professor at Department of Language and Communication, firstname.lastname@example.org
|ECTS||3 for full attendance all 3 days. Partial attendance is also possible: 1 ECTS for workshop – 2 ECTS for masterclass.|
|Fees||It is free to attend the workshop and masterclass. Room and board including lunches and dinner in town is at the attendees own expense. The department provides coffee/tea during the day.|
|Organizer||Centre for Multimodal Communication (CMC) and Department of Language and Communication (ISK), SDU|
About the workshop and masterclass
This workshop and master class is aimed at doctoral student interested in software as semiotic technology (i.e. technology for social meaning-making). This interest relates both to the design and to the use of software. It will approach software, in particular social media, and digital artefacts for production of various texts (e.g. Photoshop, Word, Prezi), from the perspectives of the humanities and social sciences, primarily, but not exclusively from a social semiotic multimodal perspective.
Leading up to the masterclass, a workshop is organized to address questions on researching web material (e.g. websites), how to collect and categorize digital data and how to access material, that has been available on the web, but now resides in a web archive.
The course intends to combine four elements: (1) workshop on web archiving and how to conduct software and social media research; (2) lectures and workshops with hands-on analysis on engaging with data and particular issues within semiotic technology by leading researchers; (3) individual consultations with the scholars; and (4) short presentations by attending PhD students.
The scholars and their subjects are:
The final program along with a list of readings will be circulated in early August.
1 day workshop on web archiving by researchers from NetLab research group at Aarhus University
2 days of masterclass with lectures and workshops on semiotic technology, social media and digital artefacts
Monday 19 September
Workshop on web archiving
Niels Brügger, Ulrich Have & Johanne la Cour (NetLab, Aarhus University)
The purpose of the workshop is to give an introduction to working with archived web material in research, including:
• Insight into the challenges of working with archived web material as a research object
• A presentation of the various ways you can archive web material yourself – and hands-on experience of using various tools
• Knowledge of existing web archives, and of how these can be used in research
Program of the day
8.30 – 9.00 Welcome
9.00 – 10.30 Workshop part 1
10.30 – 10.45 Coffee
10.45 – 12.15 Workshop part 2
12.15 – 13.00 Lunch
13.00 – 14.45 Workshop part 3
14.45 – 15.00 Tea
15.00 – 16.30 Student presentations and Q&A Evening Dinner at restaurant in town
Tuesday 20 September
Masterclass on semiotic technology
Michele Zappavigna (University of New South Wales) & Sumin Zhao (University of Technology Sydney):
“Mixed method analysis of social media practices: a critical multimodal discourse analysis framework”
In this masterclass, we will demonstrate how to apply a mixed-method approach to analyzing multimodal social media discourse and related semiotic practices. The masterclass will be organized into three sections. In the first section, we will cover the key aspects of social media practices (e.g. social streaming, tagging, curation, platformisation etc.) and theory. We will then explore mixed-method approaches to analyzing social media discourse and how these approaches can be used across various platforms. In the final part of the masterclass, the participants will work on multimodal data using a particular case study of a well-known ‘mommy blogger’ who uses a range of SM technologies.
Program of the day
9.00 – 10.30 Lecture
10.30 – 10.45 Coffee
10.45 – 12.15 Workshop
12.15 – 13.00 Lunch
13.00 – 14.45 Workshop/ consultations
14.45 – 15.00 Tea
15.00 – 16.15 Consultations
Evening Dinner at restaurant in town
Wednesday 21 September
Masterclass on semiotic technology
Emilia Djonov (Macquarie University) & Theo van Leeuwen (University of Southern Denmark):
“Software (mis)adventures in 3D space design: off-loading and sharing interior layout design”
Participants in this masterclass will use, and analyse, apps for creating and sharing floorplans. They will then be invited to compare the products and process of this experience in relation to comparable semiotic artefacts (e.g. representations of furniture arrangements in interior design magazines) and practices (e.g. drawing a floorplan by hand).
Program of the day
9.00 – 10.30 Lecture
10.30 – 10.45 Coffee
10.45 – 12.15 Workshop
12.15 – 13.00 Lunch
13.00 – 14.45 Workshop/ consultations
14.45 – 15.00 Tea
15.00 – 16.15 Consultations
16.15.- 16.30 Wrap up and evaluation
’Our events are open free of charge to PhD students from our own program, and from all other programs provided they also offer tuition free of charge to our students. ’Soon-to-be’ Phd students may also attend with permission from the event instructors and the Program Director, whom you should first contact if this applies to you (Dennis Day:email@example.com). We are also very happy if senior members of staff wish to attend, particularly PhD supervisors, and will accommodate them in lieu of space. We ask all who attend an event to register. You’ll find the online registration form on the same page as the event description.’
For further information, please see the attached pdf, or follow this link: http://www.sdu.dk/forskni
In March we launched an online study group for discussing SFL in Japanese with a number of colleagues across the world. We now prepare for the next meeting in 19th June, and would like to take this opportunity to invite more people to join in.
Our aims are to get together, to share knowledge and questions in a collaborative collegial setting, to learn from each other and to foster the knowledge base of the Japanese-speaking subcommunity of SFL. All are welcome, wherever you are, what language(s) you speak or work on, as long as you can be engaged in the discussion in Japanese on Skype.
If you are interested, please let me know (firstname.lastname@example.org), and I’ll send you more information about the group, how you can join, etc., written in Japanese. You are also very welcome to forward this email to those who may be interested so they can contact me.
Look forward to hearing from many of you!
PhD from University of Technology, Sydney
In his cross comparison of the traditional American “sharing time” with the Spanish equivalent “La Ronda,” Poveda (2002) identified narrative elements that were both shared and culturally specific. Existence, organization, and content of each session were similar. That is to say that both cultures valued having the sharing time as part of their curriculum, structured the experience similarly, and covered similar topics. However, the goals of the sessions were different. Oral narratives of Spanish children had moral themes. These children used the event to demonstrate a sense of themselves in relation to their community. English narratives in turn were more individualistic and child-centered. Different narrative abilities were born out of similar situations. The difference could be derived from the value that each culture put on different story components and thereby increasing the frequency of those types of stories and exposure (Poveda, 2002).
Poveda, David. (2002). La Ronda in a Spanish kindergarten classroom with a cross-cultural comparison to sharing time in the U.S.A. Anthorpology & Educaiton Quarterly. Vol 32(3). 301-325
Sociological and Educational Roots of Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics
This paper aims to seek early influences of sociology and educational sciences on qualitative and quantitative research in SLA and FLT. Field work undertaken by psychologists, sociologists and teachers in the 1950s is presented as a basis for later quantitative research. An overview of studies in the field of social psychology and educational sociology in the 1960s and 1970s, anchored in symbolic interactionism, follows to help us identify early criticism of quantitative approaches and its influence on directions and methods of qualitative research on teacher–student and student–student interaction in learner-centred contexts, as well as on group dynamics in the language classroom. An overview of critical pedagogy and political sociology since the early 1970s is then attempted to seek beginnings of disciplined reflection on the role of languages in the functioning of educational systems and of triangulated research on language in the school curriculum. Implications are sought for present-day teacher research and its role in pre- and in-service language teacher education
2. GOFFMAN, GARFINKEL AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS
Talk-in-interaction, Schegloff (1992) remarks, is ‘the primordial site of human sociality.’
It is the fundamental resource through which the business of all societies is managed,
their cultures are transmitted, the identities of their participants are affirmed, and their
social structures are reproduced. In almost every imaginable particular, our ability to
grasp the nature of the social world and to participate in it is dependent on our capacities,
skill and resourcefulness as social interactants. In the past, social scientists have had little
to say about how interaction works, treating it as an invisible or inscrutable ‘black box’.
The advent of conversation analysis, which investigates interaction as a social institution,
has begun to end this state of affairs.
Consider the following segment of talk from a medical consultation. The patient is
a divorced, middle-aged woman who lives alone and works a sixty-hour week in a
restaurant she owns. At Line 4, the doctor asks a ‘lifestyle’ question. Though opaquely
phrased, the question hearably inquires into the extent to which she drinks. She responds
with an apparently bona fide effort to estimate it (Line 6) as ‘moderate’. Pressed further,
she specifies this description in a turn that conveys, without directly stating, that her
drinking is social and infrequent (Lines 9 and 10). The doctor is not satisfied with this,
and pursues a more ‘objective’ numerically specified estimate (Lines 11-12). Mter a brief
struggle, a compromise ‘quasinumerical’ estimate is reached (Lines 15-16) and accepted
1 DOC tch D’you smoke?, h
2 PAT Hmmm.
4 DOC Alcohol use?
6 PAT Hm:: moderate I’d say.
8 DOC Can you define that, hhhehh ((laughing outbreath))
9 PAT Uh huh hah .hh I don’t get off my- (0.2) outa
10 thuh restaurant very much but [(awh:)
11 DOC [Daily do you use
12 alcohol or:=h
13 PAT Pardon?
14 DOC Daily? or[::
15 PAT [Oh: huh uh. .hh No: uhm (3.0) probably:
16 I usually go out like once uh week.
18 DOC °Kay. °
If you had been presented with this segment in 1960, you would have found few
systematic resources with which to analyse what is going on in this segment, and none
which could offer any significant clues as to the details of the actions the participants are
engaged in. In general, the social science of the period was highly abstract and
unconcerned with the specifics of everyday conduct. In fact, it was believed that
individual episodes like the doctor-patient exchange above are fundamentally disorderly
and that attempts at their systematic analysis would only be a waste of time (Sacks,
1984). Today, the details of this segment can be specified with a high degree of
resolution (see Boyd and Heritage, forthcoming, for an account of this segment and some
of the many analyses that bear on its details). This is possible because we now recognize
not only that there is a ‘world’ of everyday life that is available to systematic study, but
also that its texture is orderly to a degree that was hitherto unimaginable. My aim here is
to describe how two great American social scientists – Erving Goffman and Harold
Garfinkel – dissented from the idea that the details of the everyday world are an
inherently disorderly and unresearchable mess. They are central figures in the demolition
of this idea, and their perspectives have been combined to create a major social science
paradigm, conversation analysis, which is beginning to unlock fundamental structural and
processual features of social interaction.
Goffman’s fundamental achievement, developed over a lifetime of writing (see Goffman,
1955, 1983), was to establish that social interaction is a form of social organization in its
own right. Social interaction, he argued, embodies a distinct moral and institutional order
that can be treated like other social institutions, such as the family, education, religion
etc. Goffman came to term this the interaction order (Goffman, 1983) and, he argued, it
comprises a complex set of interactional rights and obligations which are linked both to
‘face’ (a person’s immediate claims about ‘who s/he is’ in an interaction), more enduring
features of personal identity, and also to large-scale macro social institutions. Goffman
further argued that the institutional order of interaction has a particular social
significance. It underlies the operations of all the other institutions in society, and it
mediates the business that they transact. The work of political, economic, educational and
legal and other social institutions is all unavoidably transacted by means of the practices
that make up the institution of social interaction.
Goffman’s central insight was that the institution of interaction has what he called a
‘syntax’. In the Introduction to Interaction Ritual he observes:
I assume that the proper study of interaction is not the individual and his
psychology, but rather the syntactical relations among the acts of different persons
mutually present to one another. (Goffman, 1967: 2)
The participants use this ‘syntax’ – a socio-logic of interaction that provides for the
sequential ordering of actions (see Goffman, 1971: 171-202) – to analyse one another’s
conduct. By looking at the choices people make within this syntax, persons can arrive at
judgements about personal motivations and identities. This syntax, Goffman argued, is a
core part of the moral order. It is the place where face, self and identity are expressed,
and where they are also ratified, undermined or destroyed by the conduct of others.
Thus, in contrast to his predecessors, Goffman viewed the normative organization
of practices and processes that makes up the interaction order as a domain to be studied in
its own right. He repeatedly rejected the view that interaction is a colourless, odourless,
frictionless substrate through which, for example, personality variables, dominance
hierarchies, or institutional or macrosociological processes operate (Goffman, 1964;
Kendon, 1988). What is excluded in this latter conception is the interactional order as an
autonomous site of authentic social processes that inform social action and interaction.
With this framework, Goffman carved out a new conceptual space, and with it a new
territory for systematic analysis: the interaction order as a social institution in its own
In retrospect it is clear that, while his work has been enormously influential,
Goffman’s inspired recognition of interaction as an autonomous domain of study was
insufficiently developed to become the basis for a distinct social science field of
discourse analysis. In part, these difficulties had to do with Goffman’s attitude to data. As
Schegloff (1988) has noted, Goffman did not so much demonstrate his theoretical
observations as exemplify them. His interest in the empirical realm was exhausted by its
role in illustrating brilliantly conceived theoretical analyses. A second order of difficulty
was conceptual. Goffman’s interest in the ‘syntax’ of interaction was one that connected
social identity with the institutions of society. He was interested in how face and identity
are associated with action, and how the inferences about them that are triggered by
actions can motivate interactional conduct. He was less interested in, and did not pursue,
other equally fundamental issues concerning how the participants understand one another
in interaction and, just as important, know that they share their understandings. Largely
for these reasons, Goffman’s approach – brilliant though it was – failed to stabilize as a
systematic approach to the analysis of interaction. There is no ‘Goffman School’ of
interaction analysis, and Goffman’s seminal insights might have been stillborn but for
their intersection with a quite separate emergence of interest in cognition and meaning in
the social sciences during the 1960s.
This emergence can be traced, above all, to the extraordinary researches of Harold
Garfinkel (1967). Garfinkel argued that all human action and human institutions,
including Goffman’s interaction order, rest on the primordial fact that persons are able to
make shared sense of their circumstances and act on the shared sense they make.
Garfinkel wanted to know how this is possible, and he hit on the notion that persons use
shared methods of practical reasoning (‘ethno-methods’) to build this shared sense of
their common context of action, and of the social world more generally. Garfinkel argued
that coordinated and meaningful actions, regardless of whether they involve cooperation
or conflict, are impossible without these shared understandings. Thus any conception of
social action is incomplete without an analysis of how social actors use shared commonsense
knowledge and shared methods of reasoning in the conduct of their joint affairs. It
is these shared methods, for example, that enable our doctar and patient to build and
navigate their sequence of interaction, knowing that issues are not quite resolved until the
doctor says ‘Kay’ at Line 18 in Extract 1. Thus Garfinkel insisted that shared sense
making is a primordial feature of the social world. Nothing can happen in the social
world without it. His project – ethnomethodology – was to study how socially shared
methods of practical reasoning are used to analyse, understand, and act in the commonsense
world of everyday life.
In developing these ideas, Garfinkel drew for inspiration on the writings of Alfred
Schlitz 0962), who argued that common-sense knowledge is patchy and incomplete, is
held in a form that is typified, approximate and revisable, and that shared understandings
between persons are contingent achievements based on this knowledge. Using a series of
quasi-experimental procedures (known as ‘breaching experiments’) to create basic
departures from taken-far-granted social expectations, Garfinkel 0967) was able to
demonstrate the significance of these ideas.
For example, using the game of ‘noughts and crosses,’ Garfinkel 0963) had
experimenters invite the subjects to make the first move, whereupon the experimenters
erased the subject’s mark, moved it to a new cell, and then made their own mark while
acting as if nothing out of the ordinary was happening. These experimental departures
engendered deep confusion and moral indignation in their subjects but, Garfinkel found,
the deepest anger and indignation was engendered in those who could not make sense of
the situation. From this Garfinkel concluded that the rules of noughts and crosses are not
only rules that define how one should act within the game, what counts as winning and
losing etc., they are also resources for making sense of another’s move, and of the ‘state of
play’ more generally. It is the rules of noughts and crosses that allow the one playing as
‘0’ to see that the situation in Figure 1 is ‘hopeless.’
Similarly, they can be used to see that in Figure 2 ‘X’ has ‘two in a row’ and is
threatening to beat ‘0’. They can also be used to see that if you ‘miss’ noticing the ‘two in a
row’ situation, you’re being ‘inattentive’. And other understandings can be laminated on to
X O X X O O
Figure 1 Noughts and crosses Figure 2 Noughts and crosses
– ‘hopeless’ – ‘two in a row’
If the ‘0’ player in Figure 2 is an adult, and the ‘X’ player is a child, missing ‘two in a row’
by putting the next ‘0’ in other than the bottom right square can leave the adult open to the
accusation that ‘it’s no fun because you’re letting me win’.
From quasi-experimental procedures like this, Garfinkel concluded that shared
methods of practical reasoning inform both the production of action, and the recognition
of action and its meanings. In fact, he argued, we produce action methodically to be
recognized for what it is, and we recognize action because it is produced methodically in
this way. As Garfinkel made the point in his own inimitable prose: ‘The activities
whereby members produce and manage the settings of organized everyday affairs are
identical with members’ procedures for making these settings account-able’ (Garfinkel,
Most of social life is a great deal more complicated than games. And Garfinkel
used other ‘breaching experiments’ to demonstrate practical reasoning in these more
complicated social situations. These experiments clearly indicated that social actions,
shared understandings and, ultimately, social institutions are underpinned by a complex
body of presuppositions, tacit assumptions and methods of inference – in short, a body of
methods or methodology – that informs the production of culturally meaningful objects
and actions, and that is equally profoundly involved in how we go about achieving
understandings of them.
Methods of common-sense reasoning are fundamentally adapted to the recognition
and understanding of events-in-context. In Garfinkel’s analysis, ordinary understandings
are the product of a circular process in which an event and its background are
dynamically adjusted to one another to form a coherent ‘gestalt’. Garfinkel described this
process, following Mannheim, as ‘the documentary method of interpretation’ and he
argues that it is a ubiquitous feature of the recognition of all objects and events from the
most mundane features of everyday existence to the most recondite of scientific or artistic
achievements. In this process, linkages are assembled between an event and its physical
and social background using a variegated array of presuppositions and inferential
procedures. The documentary method embodies the property of reflexivity: changes in an
understanding of an event’s context will evoke some shift or elaboration of a person’s
grasp of the focal event and vice versa. When it is employed in a temporally dynamic
context, which is a characteristic of all situations of social action and interaction, the
documentary method forms the basis for temporally updated shared understandings of
actions and events among the participants.
The upshot of Garfinkel’s researches was that every aspect of shared understandings
of the social world depends on a multiplicity of tacit methods of reasoning. These
methods are socially shared and they are ceaselessly used during every waking moment
to recognize ordinary social objects and events. These methods also function as a
resource for the production of actions. Actors tacitly draw on them so as to produce
actions that will be accountable – that is, recognizable and describable – in context. Thus,
shared methods of reasoning are publicly available on the surface of social life because
the results of their application are inscribed in social action and interaction.
Conversation analysis (CA), developed by Harvey Sacks in association with Emanuel
Schegloff and Gail Jefferson, emerged in the late 1960s at the intersection of the
perspectives developed by Goffman and Garfinkel. From Goffman, CA took the notion
that talk-in-interaction is a fundamental social domain that can be studied as an
institutional entity in its own right. From Garfinkel came the notion that the practices and
procedures with which parties produce and recognize talk are talk’s ‘ethnomethods.’ They
form the resources which the parties unavoidably must use and rely on to produce and
recognize contributions to interaction which are mutually intelligible in specific ways,
and which advance the situation of interaction in an incremental, step-by-step fashion.
In the early CA publications (e.g. Schegloff and Sacks, 1973) these two
perspectives were melded into a new methodology. Integral to the methodology was a
reversal of the old social science perspective that individual actions are inherently
disorderly, and that their patterns can only be approximated using statistics. Instead CA
insisted that social interaction is orderly on an individual, action-by-action, case-by-case,
level. Along with this came the insistence that this order must be found in the naturally
occurring materials of interaction, rather than materials fabricated through
experimental procedures or role plays. And finally, since orderliness inheres in the details
of interaction, there was an insistence that these materials be recorded on audio or video
tape rather than being noted, coded, or, worse, simply recollected or imagined.
In keeping with the Goffmanian background of CA, this methodology was directed
at uncovering institutionalized practices, and the organization of them, through which
ordinary interaction is managed. These practices were conceived as basically independent
of the motivational, psychological or sociological characteristics of individuals: the
institution of interaction largely antedates the characteristics of those who staff it. Just as
important, Garfinkel’s focus on the importance of contextuality, reflexivity and
intersubjectivity primarily emerged in a focus on the sequential aspects of interaction.
Several fundamental ideas are condensed in this sequential focus. First, turns at talk
are overwhelmingly produced with an orientation to preceding talk, most commonly the
immediately preceding talk (Sacks 1987,1992; Schegloff and Sacks, 1973). Speakers
design their talk in ways that exploit this basic positioning, thereby exposing the
fundamental role of sequential positioning as a resource for the production and
understanding of their utterances (Schegloff, 1984). Second, current actions ordinarily
project the relevance of a particular (range of) ‘next’ actions to be done by a subsequent
speaker (Schegloff, 1972). Third, by the production of next actions, speakers show an
understanding of a prior action and do so at a multiplicity of levels – for example, by an
‘acceptance’, an actor can show an understanding that the prior turn was possibly
complete, that it was addressed to them, that it was an action of a particular type (e.g., an
invitation) and so on. CA methodology is premised on the notion that all three of these
features – the grasp of a ‘next’ action that a current projects, the production of that next
action, and its interpretation by the previous speaker – are methodically achieved by
means of a set of socially shared practices.
Consider the following sequence:
NANCY a-> W’ts ‘iz last name,
HYIA b-> =Uh: Freedla:nd. .hh[hh
NANCY c-> [Oh[:,
HYIA [(‘r) Freedlind. = ‘
NANCY d-> =Nice Jewish bo:y?
HYIA e-> O:f cou:rse,=
NANCY f-> =’v [cou:rse,]
HYIA [hh-hh-hh]hnh .hhhhh=
NANCY =Nice Jewish boy who doesn’like tih write letters?
qIn the first question-answer sequence (arrowed a-c), Nancy asks for the name of Hyla’s
current boyfriend, and subsequently acknowledges this information with ‘Oh’; (Line 3,
arrowed c). With this response she shows, quite appropriately, that this information is
‘news’ for her, that she did not know it before, and thus that her question was a ‘real’ one
that was informed by a desire to know the answer (Heritage, 1984a, 1984b, 1995). By
contrast, in the second sequence (arrowed d-f), Nancy acknowledges Hyla’s response
with “v course’, rather than ‘oh’. By this means, she shows that the answer was not ‘news’
for her and, retroactively, that her ‘question’ at Line 5 (arrowed) was not a ‘real’ question
so much as a solid inference (based on ethnographic knowledge of the last name), and
that it was to be understood as a comment on the social desirability of the boyfriend. Here
action, meaning, context, and intersubjectivity are bound together through simple
practices of talking.
In summary, CA analyses of the use of conversational practices are simultaneously
analyses of action, meaning, context management and intersubjectivity because all of
these features are simultaneously, if tacitly, the objects of the actors’ actions. The
procedures that inform these activities are normative in that actors can be held morally
accountable both for departures from their use and for the inferences which their use, or
departures from their use, may engender. In these ideas, the perspective that Garfinkel
had developed over a number of publications was crystallized into a clear set of empirical
working practices which were applied, without exception, to tape recordings of naturally
Operating in tandem with this methodology, was a commitment to the study of
ordinary conversation as a domain which has substantive priority over other forms of
interaction such as, for example, the rituals of public events or more specialized activities
such as court hearings or business meetings. The initial body of CA research focused
entirely on ordinary conversation, and even when drawing from data, such as group
therapy or emergency telephone calls, its practitioners focused on what was ‘ordinary’
rather than what was ‘institutional’ or otherwise exceptional about them.
Based on this methodological framework, CA began the work of analysing
conversation as a social institution. In the process, fundamental treatments of a range of
basic dimensions of conversational practice were developed, including turn-taking
(Goodwin, 1981; Sacks et al., 1974) sequence organization (Pomerantz, 1978, 1984;
Sacks, 1987 ; Schegloff, 1972; Schegloff and Sacks, 1973); the overall structure of
conversations (Schegloff 1968; Schegloff and Sacks 1973); the repair of difficulties in
speaking, hearing and understanding talk (Schegloff et aI., 1977); story telling (Sacks,
1974); word selection (Schegloff, 1972); and others. These studies carved out a range of
sub-areas of conversational organization which are of continuing relevance today.
Towards the end of this period, the field also began to diversify into domains of
interaction – such as legal proceedings, doctor-patient interaction, calls to the emergency
services, news interviews and classroom interaction – which are socially and
organizationally distinct from ordinary conversation. This diversification into
‘institutional talk’ has accelerated markedly in the past decade. The distinct orientations of
these two dimensions of CA research might be summarized by suggesting that whereas
CA studies of ordinary conversation analyse the institution of talk as an entity in its own
right, CA studies of institutional talk effectively examine the management of social
institutions in talk (Drew and Heritage, 1992; Heritage, 1997). The assumptions
underlying the study of institutional talk are that ordinary conversation is more basic and
primordial than institutional talk. While the practices of ordinary conversation change
relatively slowly and appear to be very similar across many languages and cultures, the
practices involved in institutional talk can change quite quickly and are subject to various
kinds of social pressures. For example the ‘consumer movement’ in medicine has
evidently changed the ways in which doctors normally deliver diagnoses (compare Byrne
and Long, 1976, with Perakyla, 1998). Similarly, journalists have become notably more
adversarial and less deferential in their questioning of public figures during the past three
decades (Clayman and Heritage, 1999). There is no question that the study of talk in
institutional settings has become a major growth area in conversation analysis. But it has
been made possible by the remarkable range and stability of conversation analytic
findings that have been developed from ordinary conversation.
As its name implies, conversation analysis is a method for studying social interaction. It
is not designed for the analysis of texts, or of contexts where activities are progressed by
means other than social interaction. Instead, it is a method designed to unpack the
fundamental organization of social action and interaction, and in its applied and
institutional aspects, to link empirical findings about the organization of action and
interaction to other characteristics of social actors and the settings they act in. Its
strengths and limitations should be appreciated in these terms.
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during verbal examination’, in Heritage,]. and Maynard, M. (eds) Practising Medicine:
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in presidential press conferences’, Paper presented at the National Communication
Association Meetings, Chicago IL.
Drew, P. and Heritage, J. (1992) ‘Analyzing talk at work: an introduction’, in P. Drew and
J. Heritage (eds) Talk at Work, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
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concerted actions’, in O.J. Harvey (ed.) Motivation and Social Interaction, New York,
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Goffman, E. (1955) ‘On face work’, Psychiatry, no. 18, pp. 213-31.
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Goodwin, C. 0981) Conversational Organization: Interaction Between Speakers and
Hearers, New York, Academic Press.
Heritage, J. (1984a) Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Heritage, J. (1984b) ‘A change-of-state token and aspects of its sequential placement’, in
J.M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds) Structures of Social Action, Cambridge, Cambridge
Heritage, J. (1995) ‘Conversation analysis: methodological aspects’, in UM. Quasthoff (ed.)
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Silverman (ed.) Qualitative Analysis: Issues of Theory and Method, London, Sage.
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in P. Drew and A. Wootton (eds) Erving Goffman: Exploring in the Interaction Order,
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origins of structural studies of face-to-face interaction’, in A. Kendon (ed.) Conducting
Interaction: Patterns of Behaviour in Focused Encounters, Cambridge, Cambridge
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health care’, Social Psychology Quarterly, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 301-20.
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constraints’, in J. Schenkein (ed.) Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction,
New York, Academic Press.
Pomerantz, A. (1984) ‘Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: some features of
preferred/ dispreferred turn shapes’, in J.M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds) Structures of
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Sacks, H. (1974) ‘An analysis of the course of a joke’s telling in conversation’, in R. Bauman
and]. Sherzer (eds) Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, Cambridge, Cambridge
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London: Sage, 2001
Conversation Analysis & Discourse Analysis
The influence of ethnomethodology
Both conversation analysis and discourse analysis reflect and develop the
concerns of ethnomethodology. Pioneered by Harold Garfinkel (1967) the fundamental
tenet of ethnomethodology is that the sense of social action is accomplished
through the participants’ use of tacit, practical reasoning skills and
competencies. These skills are referred to as ‘tacit’ and ‘practical’ because they
are not the kinds of ‘rules’ or norms of behaviour which we could consciously
articulate, or on which we would routinely reflect. Instead, they inhabit the very
weave of social life, and thereby become invisible and unnoticeable. As so much
of social life is mediated through spoken and written communication, the study
of language was placed at the very heart of ethnomethodology’s sociological
enterprise. Sacks was a colleague of Garfinkel, and their work shares many concerns:
for example, analysing the normative basis of social action, and the way
that sense-making procedures are embedded in mundane activities. However,
Sacks’ work was focused exclusively on the communicative competencies that
informed ordinary, everyday conversation. Moreover, as his distinctive style of
analysis developed it became much more positivistic in its outlook. CA subsequently
emerged as the study of objective structures in the way that interaction
is patterned. This is at odds with ethnomethodology’s more interpretative stance,
and its focus on the ways in which members achieve the sense of any particular
event or moment. In recent years, some ethnomethodologists have been critical
of this positivistic turn in CA, arguing that it betrays the more ethnomethodological
spirit which was important in some of Sacks’ earlier lectures (Lynch and
Although Gilbert and Mulkay (1984) were interested in the interpretative
practices which informed scientists’ accounts of a scientific dispute, their analyses
were not ethnomethodological in orientation. However, ethnomethodology’s
focus on the situated and constitutive use of tacit sense-making activities was
reflected in Edwards and Middleton’s studies of the joint production of discursive
remembering. And Garfinkel’s work was explicitly influential in Potter
and Wetherell’s (1987) subsequent development of discourse analysis, in two
senses. First, ethnomethodological research was cited to establish that the
study of people’s own sense-making should be a central part of social psychology.
But it was also important as part of their wider critique of experimental
methods in social psychology. Thus although discourse analysis was
informed by a range of intellectual traditions, ethnomethodology was central
to their attempt to highlight the implications for social psychology of the constructive
and constitutive properties of ordinary language.
[Thesis]. Manchester, UK: The University of Manchester; 2010.
This study investigates clause complexing and conjunctive explicitation in a speciallycompiled corpus consisting of two sets of Arabic translations and comparable non-translatedArabic texts both produced by the same translators/authors in the domainsof history and philosophy. Focusing on certain types of conjunctive markers, thisstudy seeks to find lexico-grammatical evidence of one of the translation-specificfeatures, i.e. features typical of translated language, in these selected target texts,using both parallel and comparable corpora.Adopting a Systemic Functional approach for analyzing logico-semantic relationsbetween clauses, clause complexes and sequences in Arabic, the study examinessome causal and concessive conjunctions and conjunctive Adjuncts in Arabictranslated and non-translated texts, and contrasts these with their English counterpartswith a view to identifying recurrent patterns or trends of ‘explicitation’, one of thefeatures that are arguably typical of translated texts.Baker (1996) suggests a number of translation-specific features, which manifestthemselves in translated texts on lexical and syntactic levels, and seem to be typicalof translated language in general. Evidence of one such posited feature, namelyexplicitation, is sought in the selected translators’ handling of structural and textualconjunctive expressions in the English source texts. Thus, the primary aim of thepresent study is twofold: to examine from a systemic functional perspectivedifferences in the patterns of instantiation of clause complexing and conjunctiverelations in English source texts, their Arabic translations and Arabic non-translationsauthored by the same translators; and to investigate whether, and to what extent, thesedifferences are attributable to explicitation as a translation-specific feature.The originality of this study stems first from its focus on Arabic, thus addressing aconspicuous gap in corpus-based research on translation-specific features, which hasso far been largely confined to Indo-European languages. Secondly, being theorydriven,and specifically embedded in a systemic functional framework, the conceptionof explicitation adopted in this study constitutes a departure from the taxonomicapproach characteristic of a large body of literature on explicitation, which is neitherinformed nor motivated by a coherent theoretical framework, with the result that itoften engenders a flat model of description and classification, with vague overlappingcategories. Confirming the findings of earlier studies on explicitation, this study hasrevealed a tendency of explicitation features to cluster in various metafunctionalenvironments, with the overall effect of reducing vagueness or complexity, avoidingambiguity, and enhancing comprehensibility through enhanced conjunctivecohesiveness, reinforcement, expanded simplification or unpacking of complexconstructions.
Arabic Translation Explicitation Conjunction Clause Complexing Systemic Functional Linguistics Corpus
explicitating shifts are generally considered one of