II PREMIOS TALENTO JOVEN

Carné Joven Comunidad de Madrid 2016

¡Tu esfuerzo por hacer un mundo mejor tiene recompensa! Plazo de presentación HASTA EL 30 DE JUNIO

World Toilet Day

World Toilet Day

Dodano: 23-11-2015

The Polish Humanitarian Action (PAH) specializes in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene projects. In 2014 PAH began a WASH project in Somalia at a camp for internally displaced persons in Mogadishu. Thanks to funds from the European Commission some 300 toilet facilities were constructed. Why is toilet so important so that we celebrate toilet day?

Toilet, a place where if we don’t go each morning, our whole day doesn’t go well. In some emergency situation if we don’t get to use the loo we cannot concentrate on anything else. Every morning we spend our private time in the clean, well marveled toilet. Some of us have our toilets attached near the room and some of us have to walk few steps to reach. Now imagine if we didn’t have the privilege of using these toilets and we had to walk a long distance to use a toilet or we had to help ourselves somewhere in the fields or in some open area. Does this sound good? I am sure it doesn’t. According to the UN, 2.4 billion People do not have adequate sanitation. 1 billion people still defecate in the open. Poor sanitation increases the risk of disease and malnutrition, especially for women and children. Women and girls risk rape and abuse, because they have no toilet that offers privacy.

There are several reasons why people don’t have access to proper toilet, in different developing country because of people’s poor economic condition and poverty they cannot afford making a proper toilet since making a proper toilet is not a cheap investment so they are obliged to defecate in the open. Except this, lack of education is another reason. People with lack of education do not find anything wrong to defecate in the open. Defecating in the open creates sanitation problem which eventually leads to health problem in people and in the worst case scenario it can also lead to death. So it’s a problem that needs to be taken seriously.

Countries like India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana and many more have sanitation problems. A lot of people in each country are without access to sanitation. For solution to this, people need to be educated so that they can clearly understand the problem and try to solve it. The government of each countries have to concentrate on the country’s sanitation and start doing something about. There should be easy and cheap alternative for the toilets so that even poor people can afford it. Sanitation problems should be taken seriously and each of us, either individually or through any kind of organization, we can try to solve this problem together. On this day “World toilet day” we can start by raising awareness that sanitation is a serious issue and it should be solved since a lot of children are also dying because of it. There are different organization in this world who is focusing on this issue and one of them is Polish Humanitarian Action (PAH)

Author: Sheetal Dhakal

http://www.pah.org.pl/nasze-dzialania/231/5496/world_toilet_day

Moving Cities – Workshop

Future on my Mind – Communication and Participation in the Local Community – Workshop

2 July 2016 (Saturday), 9.30-12.30
Institute of Sociology, 52 Grodzka St

Number of places: 15 (first-come, first-served)
Time: 4 hours

Workshop Leaders:

Aleksandra Wagner, Maria Świątkiewicz-Mośny & Wit Hubert (Institute of Sociology, JU)
Anna Strzebońska, Dariusz Szklarczyk (Foundation for the Development of Social Research – FuRBS)

Descritpion:

The future exists in our minds. It is like a horizon taken into account in our actions. It is also the projection of our hopes and fears. It can be open, imagined as many possible scenarios with unlimited space for the unknown and uncertainties. On the other hand, the future is often limited to one, most probable or most wanted scenario. We have to cope with the contingency, the unknown and the uncertain. We usually transform uncertainty into a risk, use strategic planning, statistics, and quantification of chances; we delay making a decision, and ignore unpredictable or use wishful thinking. Politicians and social leaders use visions of the future to legitimise decisions and – as a rhetorical tool – to make their language more persuasive and engaging.

Part 1 (2 hours)

One of the main reasons for engaging people in local governance is sharing responsibility for the common community: direction of development, goals and actions. We want them to believe they can make their future. Social change often needs resources coming from outside the existing system: new actors, new ideas, new values.

This is why it is so important to enable people to increase their openness to the future. It is important to see many ways and many possibilities before choosing one of them. We want to help people to go beyond the limitations of the current state of affairs and think creatively about their needs and desires.

The aim of the first part of our workshop is to discuss the methods and techniques of working with a group of citizens to make them think creatively about their common future. We want them to start thinking about ways to shape their future and convince them that it can be shaped by their actions. The outcome of the group work will be a guide for a participation workshop for citizens involved in strategy making for local development. We will try to find a balance between freethinking and implementation opportunities.

Part 2 (2 hours)

Conscious and accountable planning of future changes should involve an assessment of the anticipated results of actions. The change starts with its leaders and then expands into the local community. Thus, such an assessment may concern changes in the attitudes of workshop participants, as well as the expected impact of the proposed solutions on the life of the local community. Frequently, individuals who lead participatory workshops acquire this kind of knowledge from their own observations or, basically, talking with participants.

In the second part of the workshop, you will learn how to supplement these “natural” ways of measuring the impact of participatory projects through the introduction of standardisation in the measurement of their effects (planned and unplanned). We will present basic evaluation approaches and tools that will allow participants to produce a valuable documentation of such events in the course of participatory workshops. We will show how participatory workshops can be used to build a knowledge base that allows social leaders not only to improve the quality of future work and events, but also to safeguard against duplication of mistakes.

ESA Moving Cities abstracts update and additional activities

Dear colleague,

We would like to update the conference information: about the program and the abstracts, two invitations to the additional conference events.

1)      We started working on the preliminary program, which should be published at the beginning of June. The final version will be available shortly after the end of registration (June 17th).

2)      Please be reminded that if you want to make any changes in abstract or title of your presentation you have to send us the final version not later than May 15th.

3)      We really hope you would like to take part in the conference associated events:

          “Jogging Moving Cities” on Thursday, 30th  June – the only thing you need are running shoes (more info below).

          If you plan to stay in Krakow for the weekend, you can take part in the workshop “Future on my Mind – Communication and Participation in the Local Community” on Saturday, 2nd July (morning). The workshop call is available on the page http://goo.gl/forms/aRZvZFL9Ts (on-line registration – first-come, first-served rule applies). Please note that the number of places is only 15.

 

Information about other special events will be send with the preliminary program.

 

Best regards,

Marta Smagacz-Poziemska, Karol Kurnicki
Local organizing committee

Programme

PROGRAMME OVERVIEW

  WENDESDAY, 29.06 THURSDAY, 30.06 FRIDAY, 01.07
9.30 – 11.00   Key note speech Key note speech
11.00 – 11.30 Opening Coffee break Coffee break
11.30 – 13.00 Opening Key note speech Sessions 3 Sessions 5
13.00 – 14.30 Lunch break Lunch break Lunch break
14.30 – 16.00 Sessions 1 Key note speech Sessions 6
16.00 – 16.30 Coffee break Coffee break 4 Coffee break
16.30 – 18.00 Sessions 2 Sessions 4 Sessions 7

 

Track 1 – Methodological approaches to the moving city
Lígia Ferro (CIES, ISCTE-IUL, IS-UP) and João Teixeira Lopes (IS-UP)

Track 2- Moving cities: between structure and agency. Urban institutions and the pop-up city
Marta Smagacz-Poziemska (IS – JU) and Marta Klekotko (IS – JU)

Track 3- Social processes in the globalised moving city
M. Victoria Gómez (UC3M) and Juan Jose Villalon (UNED)

Track 4- Dynamics and meanings of public spaces in the moving city
Patrícia Pereira (CICS.NOVA, FCSH-UNL), Luís Baptista (CICS.NOVA, FCSH-UNL)

Track 5- Changing Neighbourhoods in the Moving City
Sebastian Kurtenbach (ISS-ZEFIR) and Jan Üblacker (FWGW).

POSTERS for networking, future projects, looking for research partners.

Open Sessions

Track 1

Track 1 – Methodological approaches to the moving city
Lígia Ferro (CIES, ISCTE-IUL, IS-UP) and João Teixeira Lopes (IS-UP)

Urban studies are based on multiple theories and methodologies and result from shared objects of study by a diversity of areas of knowledge. In this context of interdisciplinarity we dare urban sociologists and other social scientists studying contemporary cities to think about the possibilities of crossing knowledge and scales of analysis when approaching urban life. How can different methodological approaches contribute to understand “the urban”? What are the main theoretical, epistemological and ethical challenges when we work on an interdisciplinary background to study the city? Can we really separate theory and methodology when analysing urban life? We invite colleagues working on multiple objects and backgrounds to discuss these and other questions starting from their concrete investigations.

Track 3

Track 3- Social processes in the globalised moving city
M. Victoria Gómez (UC3M) and Juan Jose Villalon (UNED)

Economic globalisation, crisis, migratory flows as much as the political responses to these processes intersect at the urban space. Some scholars have defended visions that emphasise the idea of de-territorialisation and undervalue the importance of local dynamics fostered by globalisation. Nevertheless the importance of local urban areas as the locus of the most relevant social processes seems to be increasing nowadays. The track aims at exploring the dialectic between the global and the local by examining the set of issues, practices and processes that take place in contemporary cities, from segregation, marginalisation and exclusion in their various forms, to potential new dynamics of solidarity and strengthening of feelings of belonging.

Sasskia Sassen

1 saskia zurich in greenSaskia Sassen is the Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology and Chair, The Committee on Global Thought, Columbia University (www.saskiasassen.com). Her new book isExpulsions: Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy(Harvard University Press 2014). Recent books are Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages ( Princeton University Press 2008), A Sociology of Globalization(W.W.Norton 2007), and the 4th fully updated edition of Cities in a World Economy (Sage 2012). Among older books are The Global City (Princeton University Press 1991/2001), andGuests and Aliens (New Press 1999). Her books are translated into over 20 languages. She is the recipient of diverse awards and mentions, including multiple doctor honoris causa, named lectures, and being selected as one of the top global thinkers on diverse lists. Most recently she was awarded the Principe de Asturias 2013 Prize in the Social Sciences and made a member of the Royal Academy of the Sciences of Netherland.

Open Sessions

If your work does not fit in the tracks, you can submit your proposal to the open sessions.

“…la traducción chirría estrepitosamente en cuanto asoman tímidamente la cabeza”

El poder y la música

LUIS GAGO

“Como suele ser tristemente habitual, y a pesar de que Barnes se refiere muy tangencialmente a la música de verdad (y es aquí donde radica la grandeza de Shostakóvich) y de que su prosa apenas contiene términos musicales como tales, la traducción chirría estrepitosamente en cuanto asoman tímidamente la cabeza. No puede hablarse, por ejemplo, de un “fabricante de violines” (p. 24) o de que ­alguien los “fabricaba como pasatiempo” (p. 55), sino, en todo caso, de un “constructor” o de que los “construía”. Las preposiciones también juegan malas pasadas: no existe el género del “trío de piano” (p. 27), hasta gramaticalmente incorrecto, y debe decirse con piano, como tampoco cabe hablar de una “sonata de violonchelo” sino paraviolonchelo. “En tono mayor” y “en tono menor” (p. 69) o, aún peor, “en escala mayor” (p. 192) son también errores muy burdos, ya que Barnes quiere decir “en modo mayor” y “en modo menor”. Tampoco existe el “clarinete principal” (p. 95) o el “fagot principal” (p. 186) en una orquesta, sino que se trata en ambos casos del clarinete o el fagot “solista”. Pero la palma se la llevan dos patinazos al comienzo: cuando Barnes dice que el padre y la madre de Shostakóvich “played four-handed piano”, el traductor obra el prodigio de que los 20 dedos fueran del padre en solitario: “tocaba el piano a cuatro manos” (p. 31); y al referirse indirectamente al oído absoluto del compositor con su lejano recuerdo de “four blasts of a factory siren in F sharp”, nos encontramos con “el fa agudo de los cuatro pitidos de la sirena de una fábrica” (p. 18), en vez de, con más corrección y menos agudeza, “cuatro toques de sirena en fa sostenido de una fábrica”.”

http://cultura.elpais.com/cultura/2016/05/13/babelia/1463138846_039628.html

Theo van Leeuwen in masterclass on semiotic technology at University of Southern Denmark

Centre for Multimodal Communication is hosting a PhD workshop and masterclass on semiotic technology at University of Southern Denmark on September 19-21.

 

During the course there will be lectures, workshops and the possibility for individual consultations with four top scholars within the field:

 

Michele Zappavigna (University of New South Wales)

Sumin Zhao (University of Technology Sydney)

Emilia Djonov (Macquarie University)

Theo van Leeuwen (University of Southern Denmark):

 

Date September,19-21, 2016
Time and place Coming soon
How to apply In order to apply for this course, please do the following:

1. Send a brief CV and a 1-2 page description of your project to vigild@sdu.dk.
In you project description, indicate:
• If you have specific questions that you would like to discuss.
• If you wish a private consultation with one of the three plenary speakers.

2. Sign up for the course at (link to SDU’ website – link coming soon)

Deadline for Register and email application by 15 July 2016.

You will hear from Søren Vigild Poulsen when your registration is complete.

The workshop and masterclass will accommodate a limited number of 12 participants.

Questions may be directed to Søren Vigild Poulsen, Assistant Professor at Department of Language and Communication, vigild@sdu.dk

ECTS 3 for full attendance all 3 days. Partial attendance is also possible: 1 ECTS for workshop – 2 ECTS for masterclass.
 Fees  It is free to attend the workshop and masterclass. Room and board including lunches and dinner in town is at the attendees own expense. The department provides coffee/tea during the day.
 Organizer  Centre for Multimodal Communication (CMC) and Department of Language and Communication (ISK), SDU

About the workshop and masterclass
This workshop and master class is aimed at doctoral student interested in software as semiotic technology (i.e. technology for social meaning-making). This interest relates both to the design and to the use of software. It will approach software, in particular social media, and digital artefacts for production of various texts (e.g. Photoshop, Word, Prezi), from the perspectives of the humanities and social sciences, primarily, but not exclusively from a social semiotic multimodal perspective.
Leading up to the masterclass, a workshop is organized to address questions on researching web material (e.g. websites), how to collect and categorize digital data and how to access material, that has been available on the web, but now resides in a web archive.

The course intends to combine four elements: (1) workshop on web archiving and how to conduct software and social media research; (2) lectures and workshops with hands-on analysis on engaging with data and particular issues within semiotic technology by leading researchers; (3) individual consultations with the scholars; and (4) short presentations by attending PhD students.

The scholars and their subjects are:

  • Michele Zappavigna (University of New South Wales) & Sumin Zhao (University of Technology Sydney):
    “Mixed method analysis of social media practices: a critical multimodal discourse analysis framework”
  • Emilia Djonov (Macquarie University) & Theo van Leeuwen(University of Southern Denmark):
    “Software (mis)adventures in 3D space design: off-loading and sharing interior layout design”PhD students will have the opportunity for a private consultation of approx. 20-30 minutes with one of the scholars in order to discuss particular issues in their own research. Finally, we ask the attendees to give a short (no more than 10 minutes including Q&A) presentation of their own work.

    The final program along with a list of readings will be circulated in early August.

    Preliminary Program
    1 day workshop on web archiving by researchers from NetLab research group at Aarhus University
    2 days of masterclass with lectures and workshops on semiotic technology, social media and digital artefacts

    Monday 19 September
    Workshop on web archiving
    Niels Brügger, Ulrich Have & Johanne la Cour (NetLab, Aarhus University)

    Description
    The purpose of the workshop is to give an introduction to working with archived web material in research, including:
    • Insight into the challenges of working with archived web material as a research object
    • A presentation of the various ways you can archive web material yourself – and hands-on experience of using various tools
    • Knowledge of existing web archives, and of how these can be used in research

    Program of the day
    8.30 – 9.00 Welcome
    9.00 – 10.30 Workshop part 1
    10.30 – 10.45 Coffee
    10.45 – 12.15 Workshop part 2
    12.15 – 13.00 Lunch
    13.00 – 14.45 Workshop part 3
    14.45 – 15.00 Tea
    15.00 – 16.30 Student presentations and Q&A Evening Dinner at restaurant in town

    Tuesday 20 September
    Masterclass on semiotic technology

    Michele Zappavigna (University of New South Wales) & Sumin Zhao (University of Technology Sydney):
    “Mixed method analysis of social media practices: a critical multimodal discourse analysis framework”

    Description
    In this masterclass, we will demonstrate how to apply a mixed-method approach to analyzing multimodal social media discourse and related semiotic practices. The masterclass will be organized into three sections. In the first section, we will cover the key aspects of social media practices (e.g. social streaming, tagging, curation, platformisation etc.) and theory. We will then explore mixed-method approaches to analyzing social media discourse and how these approaches can be used across various platforms. In the final part of the masterclass, the participants will work on multimodal data using a particular case study of a well-known ‘mommy blogger’ who uses a range of SM technologies.

    Program of the day
    9.00 – 10.30 Lecture
    10.30 – 10.45 Coffee
    10.45 – 12.15 Workshop
    12.15 – 13.00 Lunch
    13.00 – 14.45 Workshop/ consultations
    14.45 – 15.00 Tea
    15.00 – 16.15 Consultations
    Evening Dinner at restaurant in town

    Wednesday 21 September
    Masterclass on semiotic technology

    Emilia Djonov (Macquarie University) & Theo van Leeuwen (University of Southern Denmark):
    “Software (mis)adventures in 3D space design: off-loading and sharing interior layout design”

    Description
    Participants in this masterclass will use, and analyse, apps for creating and sharing floorplans. They will then be invited to compare the products and process of this experience in relation to comparable semiotic artefacts (e.g. representations of furniture arrangements in interior design magazines) and practices (e.g. drawing a floorplan by hand).

    Program of the day
    9.00 – 10.30 Lecture
    10.30 – 10.45 Coffee
    10.45 – 12.15 Workshop
    12.15 – 13.00 Lunch
    13.00 – 14.45 Workshop/ consultations
    14.45 – 15.00 Tea
    15.00 – 16.15 Consultations
    16.15.- 16.30 Wrap up and evaluation

______________________

’Our events are open free of charge to PhD students from our own program, and from all other programs provided they also offer tuition free of charge to our students. ’Soon-to-be’ Phd students may also attend with permission from the event instructors and the Program Director, whom you should first contact if this applies to you (Dennis Day:dennis.day@sdu.dk). We are also very happy if senior members of staff wish to attend, particularly PhD supervisors, and will accommodate them in lieu of space. We ask all who attend an event to register. You’ll find the online registration form on the same page as the event description.’

For further information, please see the attached pdf, or follow this link: http://www.sdu.dk/forskning/phd/phd_skoler/phd_humaniora/forskerudd,-d-,programmer/fsk/activities/es16_semiotictechology_sept16

 

Demetaphorization as explicitating shifts in translation

‘demetaphorization’ is generally associated with congruent unpacking of grammatical metaphors (cf. Halliday, 1985; Halliday and Matthiessen, 1999, 2004)

Demeta

see p. 164 in:

A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF CONJUNCTIVE EXPLICITATION IN ARABIC TRANSLATED AND NON-TRANSLATED TEXTS WRITTEN BY THE SAME TRANSLATORS/AUTHORS

Fattah, Ashraf

[Thesis]. Manchester, UK: The University of Manchester; 2010.

Access to files

Abstract

This study investigates clause complexing and conjunctive explicitation in a speciallycompiled corpus consisting of two sets of Arabic translations and comparable non-translatedArabic texts both produced by the same translators/authors in the domainsof history and philosophy. Focusing on certain types of conjunctive markers, thisstudy seeks to find lexico-grammatical evidence of one of the translation-specificfeatures, i.e. features typical of translated language, in these selected target texts,using both parallel and comparable corpora.Adopting a Systemic Functional approach for analyzing logico-semantic relationsbetween clauses, clause complexes and sequences in Arabic, the study examinessome causal and concessive conjunctions and conjunctive Adjuncts in Arabictranslated and non-translated texts, and contrasts these with their English counterpartswith a view to identifying recurrent patterns or trends of ‘explicitation’, one of thefeatures that are arguably typical of translated texts.Baker (1996) suggests a number of translation-specific features, which manifestthemselves in translated texts on lexical and syntactic levels, and seem to be typicalof translated language in general. Evidence of one such posited feature, namelyexplicitation, is sought in the selected translators’ handling of structural and textualconjunctive expressions in the English source texts. Thus, the primary aim of thepresent study is twofold: to examine from a systemic functional perspectivedifferences in the patterns of instantiation of clause complexing and conjunctiverelations in English source texts, their Arabic translations and Arabic non-translationsauthored by the same translators; and to investigate whether, and to what extent, thesedifferences are attributable to explicitation as a translation-specific feature.The originality of this study stems first from its focus on Arabic, thus addressing aconspicuous gap in corpus-based research on translation-specific features, which hasso far been largely confined to Indo-European languages. Secondly, being theorydriven,and specifically embedded in a systemic functional framework, the conceptionof explicitation adopted in this study constitutes a departure from the taxonomicapproach characteristic of a large body of literature on explicitation, which is neitherinformed nor motivated by a coherent theoretical framework, with the result that itoften engenders a flat model of description and classification, with vague overlappingcategories. Confirming the findings of earlier studies on explicitation, this study hasrevealed a tendency of explicitation features to cluster in various metafunctionalenvironments, with the overall effect of reducing vagueness or complexity, avoidingambiguity, and enhancing comprehensibility through enhanced conjunctivecohesiveness, reinforcement, expanded simplification or unpacking of complexconstructions.

Keyword(s)

Arabic Translation Explicitation Conjunction Clause Complexing Systemic Functional Linguistics Corpus

PS

explicitating shifts are generally considered one of the universals of translation in the field

The new SFL and CDA paper: Zhang, M., & Pan, H. (2015). Institutional power in and behind discourse

Zhang, M., & Pan, H. (2015). Institutional power in and behind discourse: A case study of SARS notices and their translations used in Macao. Target, 27(3), 387–405

This article takes a critical approach to the study of the SARS notices and their translations from the perspective of discourse analysis. Drawing upon the insights of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and critical discourse analysis (CDA), this study explores how language is used by different governmental institutions in shaping their social power and hierarchy. By conducting a comparative study of the SARS notices and their translations, focusing on speech roles, speech functions, modality types and modality orientation, the authors argue that choices made in producing the texts reflect the institutions’ social roles and their relationship with each other and with the audience. They also argue that the application of concepts from SFL in detailed text analysis and from CDA in the overall discussion may better reveal how different models of discourse analysis can supplement each other and be applied to translation studies.

Keywords: translation studies, language, discourse analysis, power
DOI: 10.1075/target.27.3.04zha

The SFL analyses of Holy Scripts. Eugene A. Nida (1964) Toward a Science of Translating

Eugene A.  Nida (1964) Toward a Science of Translating: With Special Reference to Principles and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating

nida

preface

nida3

 

See also: Cay Dollerup Eugene A. Nida and Translation Studies  Dimitriu, Rodica and Miriam Shlesinger (eds). Translators and their Readers. In Homage to Eugene A. Nida. 2009.(Brussels: Les Édition du Hazsard), 81-93 http://www.cay-dollerup.dk/Docs/226%20Nida%20(2009).doc

This article discusses the nature of scholarship in the humanities in order to put into perspective Eugene Nida’s Toward a Science of Translation. It describes European linguistics, literature studies, and foreign-language teaching in the 19 th and 20 th centuries in broad and simplified outline. When Nida published his book in 1964, the European Union was being formed, and international trade and cooperation were about to increase enormously. This would call for new generations of translators with an academic training rather than merely a bilingual (childhood) background. The article points out Nida’s arguments concerning, e.g. the division into decoding and encoding, the time spans between actual translations of the Christian Bible, the identity of the source texts, and the relevance of directionalities in Bible translation to professional translation work. Rounding off with a view of the divergences and ‘sameness’ of source and target texts today, the article concludes that Nida’s book was published at a crucial epoch, when translation had become a profession for many people; that ‘equivalence’ is often useful in a classroom setting; that Nida’s work was pioneering in its stringency; and that it inspired fruitful debates, insights, and research, thus leading to the foundation of Translation Studies. Key words: Eugene Nida; scholarship in the humanities; directionality; synchrony; diachrony; equivalence; international organisations

 

futher reading

http://linguistica.es/on-the-issue-of-translation-of-metaphor-with-reference-to-evangelical-texts/

 

 

The new paper: “Predatory” open access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics

“In that sense, these authors and their institutions are part of a structurally unjust global system that excludes them from publishing in ‘high quality’ journals on the one hand and confines them to publish in dubious journals on the other”

Cenyu Shen & Bo-Christer Björk

“Predatory” open access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics”

BMC Medicine
Volume 13, Issue 1, October 01, 2015, Article number 230

Read more: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589914/