This book is an introduction to the sociological study of education. It basically aims at integrating theoretical perspectives on education – starting with the classical sociological tradition – with the dynamics of education in highly modernized societies. The concept of “knowledge society” serves as the overarching representation of society, which is analyzed both in the structural and in the cultural perspective, focussing on the dynamics of educational policy as well as of the cultures orienting educational practices. Thus, the book treats the present transformations affecting educational systems and relationships, and some of their main trends. The analysis is put in the wider context of the emergence and crisis of “modernity“, implying its specific way to conceive of education. The book is meant for undergraduate students, and for all readers interested in the sociological study of educational phenomena. It has the double goal to give some basic notions that are central to the discipline and at the same time to stimulate personal research about educational problems.